Johana K Kiptoon, Dinah J Kipkebut


The issue of employee motivation is important as it establishes a substantial foundation for high performance levels and less unproductive time. Some motivating factors are revealed by a number of surveys conducted between both operational and professional employees to be influential across an organization. The general objective of the study was to investigate the effects of Herzberg’s hygiene factors on staff retention in selected commercial banks in Nairobi County, Kenya. The specific objectives were as follows: to determine the effect of hygiene factors (supervision, company policies and administration, working conditions, salaries, job security and relationship with colleagues) on employee retention in commercial banks in Nairobi County; and to determine the combined effect hygiene factors on staff retention commercial banks in Nairobi County. This study adopted a descriptive research design and the researcher conducted a field survey in selected commercial banks within Nairobi County, Kenya. The study purposively picked a representation from the 13 selected commercial banks from all 42 banks in Nairobi. Sampling was done from a sample of 355 employees and 199 questionnaires were received giving a response rate of 56%. The results of Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that hygiene factors had a significant positive relationship with staff retention. Specifically, the results showed that supervision and salaries and remuneration had significant positive correlations with staff retention. Finally, the results of multiple regression analysis testing the combined effect of hygiene factors on retention found that salaries and remuneration, working conditions and relationship with colleagues were the only significant predictors of staff retention. The study recommended the need for the bank administrators to properly align retention practices with the needs and values of employees.

Full Text:



Abassi, S. M. & Hollman, K. W. (2000). ‘Turnover: the real bottom line’. Public Personnel Management, 2(3), 333-42.

Armstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 10th Edition, London: Kogan Page Publishing.

Arnoux-Nicolas, C., Sovet, L., Lhotellier, L., Di Fabio, A. & Bernaud, J. L. (2016). Perceived Work Conditions and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Meaning of Work. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 704, 1-9.

Bader, A. M., Hashim, I. H.M. & Zaharim, N. M. (2013). Job Satisfaction among Bank Employees in Eastern Libya, American International Journal of Social Science, 2(1), 30-44.

Bergmann, T.J, Bergmann, M. A & Grahn, J L. (1994). How important are employee benefits to public sector employees. Public Personnel Management, 23, 397-406

Biason, R. S. (2017). The Effect of Job Satisfaction to Employee Retention. Retrieved on 1st October, 2019 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315653880

Bonache, J. (2005). Job satisfaction among expatriates, repatriates and domestic employees: the perceived impact of international assignments on work-related variables. Personnel Review, 34, 110-124.

Bradley, S., Petrescu, A. & Simmons, R. (2004). The Impacts of Human Resource Management Practices and Pay Inequality on Workers’ Job Satisfaction. Paper presented at the Western Economic Association 79th Annual Conference Vancouver.

Cohen, A. (1993). Organizational commitment and turnover: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 36(5), 1140-57

Danish, R.Q. & Usman, A. (2010). Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(2), 159-167.

Debrah, Y. (1993). Strategies for coping with employee retention problems in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Singapore. Entrepreneur, Innovation and Change, 2(2), 143-172.

Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 51-59.

Ellickson, M. C. & Logsdon, K. (2001) Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Municipal Government Employees, State and Local Government Review, 33(3), 173-84.

Gu, Z. & Siu, R. C. S. (2009) Drivers of job satisfaction as related to work Performance in Macao casino hotels: An investigation based on employee survey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21 (5), 561-578

Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and Nature of Man. Ohio: Cleveland The World Publishing Company.

Issa, D. A. R. M., Ahmad, F. & Gelaidan, H. M. (2013) Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention Based on Sales Person Standpoint. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 14 (4), 525-531

Jessen, J. T. (2010). Job satisfaction and social rewards in the social services. Journal of Comparative Social Work, 5(1), 21-38.

Kiboro R. N. (2005). Motivating factors in insurance industry: A case study of Madison Insurance Company Limited, Kenya. Unpublished MBA dissertation, School of Business and Management; Moi University, Eldoret.

Kipkebut, D. J. (2010). Organizational Commitment and Job satisfaction in higher educational institutions: the Kenyan case, Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Middlesex University, United Kingdom

Lambert, E. G. (2004). The impact of job characteristics on correctional staff members. The Prison Journal, 84 (2), 208 - 227

Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L. & Griffin, M. L. (2007). The impact of distributive and procedural justice on correctional staff job stress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35 (6), 644-656

Lazo, A. Y. (2008) Role Ambiguity: Impact on Job Satisfaction of Call Centre Agents. Michigan: Capella University.

Lim, S. (2008) Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Workers in Academic Libraries, Library and Information Science Research, 30 (2), 115-121.

Logan, J. K. (2000). Retention tangibles and intangibles: More meaning in work is essential, but good chair massages won’t hurt. Training & Development, 54 (4), 48-50

Lum, L., Kervin, J., Clarke, K., Reii, F. & Sirola, W. (1998). Explaining nursing turnover intent: job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, or organisational commitment? Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 19, 305-320.

Mandhanya, Y. (2015). A Study on the Impact of Working Environment on Retention of Employees (With special reference to Automobile sector), Global Management Review, 9, 4, 116-128.

Marchington, M., & Wilkson, A. (2006). Human Resource Management at Work: People Management and Development. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Marriner-Tomey, A. (1996). Guide to nursing management and leadership. 5th edition. St Louis: CV Mosby.

Mbah, S. E. & Ikemefuna, C.Y. (2012).Job Satisfaction and Employees Turnover Intentions in Total Nigeria Plc in Lagos State. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(14), 275 – 287.

McCormack, D., Casimir, G., Djurkovic, N. & Yang, L. (2006) The concurrent effects of workplace bullying, satisfaction with supervisor, and satisfaction with co-workers on affective commitment among schoolteachers in China, International Journal of Conflict Management, 17, 316-331.

Methma, R. (2019) A Study on the effect of the Hygiene Factors on overall Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Airline industry, Colombo Journal of Advanced Research, 1(1), 147-161

Motlou, R. G., Singh, S. & Karodia, A. M. (2016) An Evaluation of the Impact of Job Satisfaction on Employee Retention at Lonmin Rowland Shaft North West Province, Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5 (10), 15 – 49.

Msengeti, D. M. & Obwogi, D. (2015) Effects of Pay and Work Environment on Employee Retention: A Study of Hotel Industry in Mombasa County, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5 (4), 1-10.

Mugenda M.O. & Mugenda G., (2003). Research Methods. Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi, Kenya: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS).

Murupus, N. M. & Kipkebut, D. J. (2015). Effect of employee demographic characteristics and selected Human Resource Management Practices turnover intentions: A case of commercial banks in Eldoret Town, Kenya, International Journal of Management & Information Technology, 10 (10), 2555-2569.

Muthuri J. M. (2006). The effects of staff-deployment on motivation of staff: A case of procurement officers from selected Kenya government ministries. Unpublished MBA dissertation, School of Business and Management: Moi University, Eldoret.

Ngigi, E. W. & Kipkebut, D. J. (2014) Effect of employee demographic characteristics and job characteristics on job satisfaction among employees in the banking industry: A case of commercial banks in Nakuru Town, Kenya. International Journal of Management & Information Technology, 9 (3), 1698-1711.

Nivethitha, S., Dyaram, L. & Kamalanabhan T.J. (2014). Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Employee Turnover Intention in Hospitality Industry, Global Journal of Management and Business Research Administration and Management, 14 (1), 34-42.

Oluoch P. (2006). A survey of the relationship between performance appraisal practices, motivation and job satisfaction of employees of commercial banks in Nairobi. Unpublished MBA Dissertation, Nairobi: School of Business, University of Nairobi.

Ongori, H. (2007). A Review of literature on employee Turnover, African Journal of Business Management, 11, 47-54.

Onwunli A. U. & Agho A.O. (2004). Faculty Opinion on Shared authority: A Nigerian National Survey. Higher Education, 48, 397–418.

Parvin, M. M. & Kabir, N. M. (2011). Factors Affecting Employee Job Satisfaction of Pharmaceutical Sector. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 13, 113-123.

Pitts, D. Marvel, J. & Fernandez, S. (2011) So Hard to Say Goodbye? Turnover Intention among U.S. Federal Employees., Public Administration Review, 71 (5), 751-760.

Rayton, B. A. (2006). Examining the interconnection of job satisfaction and organizational commitment: An application of the bivariate probit model. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(1), 139-154.

Saleem, S., Majeed, S. & Aziz, T. (2013). Determinants of job satisfaction among employees of banking industry at Bahawalpur. Journal of Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Banking, 1(2), 150-162.

Samuel, M. O. & Chipunza, C. (2009) Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables as a panacea, African Journal of Business Management, 3(8), 410-415.

Shaw, J.D., Delery, J.E., Jenkins, G.D. & Gupta, N. (1998). An organization-level, analysis of voluntary and involuntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 41(3), 511-523.

Sowmya, K. R., & Panchanatham, N. (2011). Factors influencing job satisfaction of banking sector employees in Chennai, India. Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution, 3(5), 76-79.

Spector, P.E. (1997). Job satisfaction: application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Teck-Hong, T & Waheed, A. (2011). Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Job Satisfaction in the Malaysian Retail Sector: The mediating effect of love of money .Asian Academy of Management Journal, 16 (1), 73–94.

Tett, R. & Meyer, J. (1993). Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention and Turnover Path Analysis, Based on Meta-analytical Findings. Personnel psychology, 46, 259-293.

Tymon, W.G., Stumpf, S.A. & Smith, R. R. (2011). Manager support predicts turnover of professionals in India, Career Development International, 16 (3), 293-312.

Ugboro, I.O. (2006). Organizational Commitment, Job Redesign, Employee Empowerment and Intent to quit among survivors of Restructuring and Downsizing. Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management, 14, 232-257.

Umamaheswari, S. & Krishnan, J. (2016) Work Force Retention: Role of Work Environment, Organization Commitment, Supervisor Support and Training & Development in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Industries in India, Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 9(3), 612-633.

Wright, B. E. & Davis, B. S. 2(003). Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector: The Role of the Work Environment, The American Review of Public Administration, 33, 170-90.

Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis. (2nd Ed.). New York: Harper and Row.

Zeffane, R., Ibrahim, M. E. & Mehairi, R. (2008). Exploring the differential impact of job satisfaction on employee attendance and conduct: The case of a utility company in the United Arab Emirates. Employee Relations, 30 (3), 237-250.


  • There are currently no refbacks.